WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies
Nafkh wa Riyah al-
Accumulation of gases in the spleen and its covering layer formed due to the cold impaired temperament and excessive
black bile. It causes pain and heaviness on the left hypochondriac region.
The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:
The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:
ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.
Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).
Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated
ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.
Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.
و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.
Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).
Double letters have been expressed as follows:
iyy = ّی
Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form: