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The basics of Pathology (Kulliyāt-i ‘Ilm al-Amrāḍ)

The Unani System of Medicine defines both health and disease as well as an intermediate state. In great majority of illnesses, the disease is basically an imbalance in the normal temperament and also comprises of disorganization and discontinuity of structure. However, these three basic pathologies may exist independently too.

States of the Body

According to Unani System of Medicine states of the body are grouped under three heads:

Health (Ṣiḥḥat): in which all the functions of the body are in the range normal for a particular individual.

Disease (Maraḍ): is the opposite of Health in which one or more functions or forms of the bodily organs are at fault.

Neither health nor disease (Lā Ṣiḥḥat Lā Maraḍ/ Ḥalat Thalātha): in which there is neither complete health nor disease, as in the case of old people or those who are convalescing.

Amraz (Diseases)

Disease (Maraḍ)

Disease (Maraḍ) amounts to a pathological condition of the body which is provoked by a

cause. They are of two types:


Single disease (Maraḍ-i Mufrad)

A single disease may manifest itself in any of the following three forms:

Dyscrasia (Sū’-i Mizāj): The temperament wherein the qualities and quantities of all the participating elements in a compound are not in accordance with what the compound is made for.

Structural diseases (Amrāḍ-i Tarkīb): Abnormality of Structure

Diseases of dissolution of Unity (Amrāḍ-i Tafarruq-i Ittiṣāl)


Complex disease (Maraḍ-i Murakkab)

A complex disease is a combination of two or more single diseases.



Cause (Sabab)

Cause (Sabab) corresponds with the aetiology. It can be defined as a specific factor which either maintain the state of the body or changes it from health to sickness or from sickness to health. Causes of diseases can be divided into two types: External causes (Asbāb Bādiya) and Internal causes (Asbāb Bā\ina). External causes are those which affect the body from outside such as excessive hot or cold climate, a polluted atmosphere, injury etc. Internal causes are those which appear and affect the body internally such as formation of stones inside the kidney or bladder.

Asbab (Causes)
Asbab-e-Sitta Zarooriya.png
Hawa, Makulat wa Mashroobat.png
Harkat sukoon.png
Nawm wa Yaqza wa istifragh.png

Secondary abnormality (‘Araḍ)

Secondary abnormality (‘Araḍ) arises from the basic pathology. In diarrhoea, for example,

dehydration is a major secondary abnormality.

The basic pathology (Maraḍ) and the secondary pathology can be diagnosed by the particular

signs and symptoms (‘Alāmāt).

Aaraz wa Amraz.png

Types of Diet (Ghidha)

Types of diet according to Unani system of medicine can be better understand by following flow chart:

Ghiza ki aqsam.png
Ghiza ke Aqsam

Source: CCRUM & NHP data

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