WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies
Retention of urine in the bladder. It is of two types (1) primary causes include Burudat-i-Mathana (coldness of bladder), Hararat-i- Mathana (hotness of bladder), and flaccidity of the bladder muscles, injury to the bladder inflammation, tumour, and calculus of the bladder.
(2) Secondary causes include the disease of other organs e.g. liver, intestines, uterus, injury of back which causes
retention of urine. Its possible English equivalent is retention of urine.
The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:
The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:
ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.
Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).
Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated
ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.
Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.
و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.
Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).
Double letters have been expressed as follows:
iyy = ّی
Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form: