WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies

Hasah wa Raml al- Kulya

Term Code:

UMA-0608

Description:

According to Ibn Sina the cause of renal calculus is the retention of viscous humour inside the kidneys and hence their transformation into calculus due to the innate heat of kidneys. According to Ibn Sina inflammation and obstruction of kidneys due to their impaired temperament weakens the expulsive faculty of kidneys. As a result there is retention of viscous humours in the kidneys which essentially transforms into calculus. Its possible English equivalent
is nephrolithiasis.

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TRANSLITERATION TABLE

The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:

The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:

  • ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.

  • Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).

  • Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated

    as v.

  • ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.

  • Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.

  • و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.

  • Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).

  • Double letters have been expressed as follows:

  • uww= ّو

  • iyy = ّی

  • Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form:

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