WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies

Fuwaq

Term Code:

UMA-0453

Description:

An involuntary upward movement of the muscles of stomach and diaphragm as a result of the injury and dryness of cardiac end of the stomach. It can also be secondary to other disease of the stomach. Depending on the involvement of humours it is of four types: Fuwaq Damwi (sanguineous), Balghami (phlegmatic), Safrawi (bilious) and Sawdawi (melanotic). Its possible English
equivalent is hiccough.

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TRANSLITERATION TABLE

The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:

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The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:

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  • ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.

  • Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).

  • Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated

    as v.

  • ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.

  • Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.

  • و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.

  • Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).

  • Double letters have been expressed as follows:

  • uww= ّو

  • iyy = ّی

  • Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form:

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