WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies
Pigmentation of skin due to following causes:
Deviation of waste humours towards skin.
Predominance of waste materials in blood such as in Jaundice.
Weakness of the organs e.g. liver, spleen.
Exposure to sun and cold climate.
Irregularities in food intake e.g. excessive use of fruit of Carum carvi and fruit of Ptychotis ajowan make the skin pale.
Intake of stagnant water.
Chronic illness, increased sexual activity, excessive grief.
Its possible English equivalent is
The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:
The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:
ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.
Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).
Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated
ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.
Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.
و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.
Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).
Double letters have been expressed as follows:
iyy = ّی
Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form: