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WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies

Du‘f al-Kabid

Term Code:



A disease in which all the four faculties of liver i.e. Quwwat Hadima (digestive power), Quwwat Masika (assimilative power), Quwwat Jadhiba (absorptive power), Quwwat Dafi‘a (expulsive power) or some of these faculties become weak. The causes of this type of weakness are the impaired temperament of liver or whole body, diseases of the adjoining organs like gall bladder, spleen, kidneys, uterus, intestines and lungs, diseases of the liver itself e.g. ulcers, congestion, cirrhosis, calculus, obstruction inflammation or abscess and injuries of liver. Its possible English equivalent is
hepatic insufficiency.

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The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:

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The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:

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  • ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.

  • Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).

  • Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated

    as v.

  • ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.

  • Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.

  • و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.

  • Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).

  • Double letters have been expressed as follows:

  • uww= ّو

  • iyy = ّی

  • Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form:

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