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WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies

Bawl al-Dam

Term Code:



Passing of blood in the urine. It is fresh in nature due to the rupture of vessels of urinary tract. According to Jurjani passing of blood from the urinary tract can be due to (1) congestion of blood in kidneys, (2) intake of hot diets and drugs
e.g. garlic (Allium sativum), chillies, Jundbaydastar (castorium/beaver), Farfiyun (Euphorbia resinifera) etc., (3) lifting of heavy weight, physical exertion, increased sexual activity, injury at the site
of kidneys, (4) calculus of kidneys. Its possible English equivalent is haematuria.

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The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:

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The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:

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  • ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.

  • Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).

  • Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated

    as v.

  • ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.

  • Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.

  • و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.

  • Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).

  • Double letters have been expressed as follows:

  • uww= ّو

  • iyy = ّی

  • Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form:

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