WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies
Mashara is a Suryani word which literally means acute inflammation of any part of body due to predominance of Dam (blood) and Safra’ (yellow bile). Ancient Unani physicians have used this word for the inflammation of face and forehead. Ibn Sina
,had included this term for the acute inflammation of liver which is caused exclusively due to predominance of Safra’ (yellow bile). But most recent Unani physicians describe this as an acute inflammation of face and forehead in which the face becomes red and swollen accompanied with pain and itching. Its possible English equivalent is
The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:
The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:
ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.
Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).
Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated
ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.
Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.
و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.
Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).
Double letters have been expressed as follows:
iyy = ّی
Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form: