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WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies


Term Code:



Its literal meaning is choking. It is an inflammation of external pharynx and larynx or muscles of upper part of oesophagus. The condition leads to difficulty in breathing and swallowing. Depending on the humours involved it is divided into four types i.e. Khunaq Damwi (sanguineous), Safrawi (bilious), Sawdawi (melanotic), and Balghami (phlegmatic). It is also known as Dhabha or Khaniqa. According to Ibn Sina, Khunaq and Dhabha is the same. But recent physicians hold the view that the inflammation of tonsils and upper part of oesophagus is known as Khunaq Mutlaq and Dhabha is the inflammation of bilateral pharyngeal muscles. Its possible
English equivalent is ludwig’s angina.

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The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:

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The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:

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  • ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.

  • Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).

  • Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated

    as v.

  • ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.

  • Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.

  • و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.

  • Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).

  • Double letters have been expressed as follows:

  • uww= ّو

  • iyy = ّی

  • Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form:

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