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WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies

Intifakh Sawdawi

Bayad al-‘Ayn

Term Code:



Hard swelling with bluish colouring. It usually occurs after chronic conjunctivitis or small pox. It usually occurs in the whole eye.
A disease in which outer surface of cornea becomes white and opaque. This layer or covering is also known as Ghamam, Abr and Sahab.When the opacity lies in the cornea it is known as Bayad. This condition occurs post corneal ulcers, conjunctivitis, and migraine. It may also be caused by regular irritation of cornea leading to its ulcers, trichiasis, trachoma etc. Its possible English equivalent is
corneal opacity.

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The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:

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The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:

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  • ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.

  • Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).

  • Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated

    as v.

  • ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.

  • Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.

  • و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.

  • Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).

  • Double letters have been expressed as follows:

  • uww= ّو

  • iyy = ّی

  • Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form:

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