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WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies

Du‘f al-Tihal

Term Code:



Weakness of the faculties of spleen which can be due to splenic abscess, inflammation and wounds. If Quwwat Jadhiba (absorptive faculty) is weak it is characterized by loss of appetite, blackening of sclera, blackish discoloration of face and black jaundice.If it is due to the weakness of Quwwat Masika (assimilative faculty), excretion of undigested black bile from spleen causes nausea, bilious vomiting and bilious purgation.If it is due to the weakness of Quwwat Hadima (digestive faculty), there may be false appetite or canine appetite, melancholic purgation, elephantiasis, varicose veins. If it is due to the weakness of Quwwat Dafi‘a (expulsive faculty) there will be splenitis, splenomegaly and infected black bile may cause melanotic fever. Its possible
English equivalent is splenic insufficiency.

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The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:

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The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:

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  • ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.

  • Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).

  • Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated

    as v.

  • ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.

  • Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.

  • و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.

  • Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).

  • Double letters have been expressed as follows:

  • uww= ّو

  • iyy = ّی

  • Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form:

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