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X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Analysis of Gile armani (Armenian bole)

Waris Ali, *Hamiduddin

Hippocratic Journal of Unani Medicine
June 2015 | Volume 10 | Issue 3 | Pages 135-142


Gile Armani (Armenian bole) is a mineral origin drug used in Unani system of medicine as astringent, desiccative and antiseptic. Its origin in Unani classical text is said to be Armenia. Different clay / minerals are sold under the name of Gile Armani. Keeping in consideration the controversy over its identification this study was carried out. Three different samples of Gile Armani were collected from crude drug market of different cities. X-ray diffraction (XRD) for crystallographic study was undertaken with powder method of diffraction. A thorough review was undertaken from various classical as well as contemporary literature for its identity and it was compared with the XRD analysis. Intensity of the peaks in XRD pattern showed that all three samples were crystalline. Sample No.1 and sample No. 3 consisted of similar constituents i.e. Al2Si2O5 (OH)4 - Kaolinite, CaCo3 and Fe2O3- hematite with no evidence of silica (quartz alpha). Sample No. 2 consisted of Fe2O3-Hematite; Silica (SiO2)-Quartz alpha; CaCo3 and TiO2-Titanium Oxide, Anatase with no evidence of Kaolinite. The common view from literature that it is usually prepared by mixing pipe-clay or common chalk with oxide of iron or red ochre seems in consonance with XRD analysis findings in sample No.1 and 3; Sample No. 2 resembled Red Ochre. The findings suggested that among the various samples available in the market, the one that resembles with Red Ochre appears to be genuine drug.

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