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WHO - Standard Unani Terminologies

Intishar wa Ittisa‘ al-Thuqba

Term Code:



Most Unani physicians think these words are synonymous but Dawud Antaki has only differentiated these terms by saying that Ittisa‘ or dialatation of pupils is a disease where as Intishar or the blurring of vision is a symptom which is caused by dialatation of pupil. According to the causes Ittisa‘ or dialatation of pupils can be of many types: Warami (inflammatory), Yubsi (decrease in aqueous humour), Darbi (traumatic), and Maddi (organic), Rutubi (excess of aqueous humour). Its possible English equivalent is dialatation of

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The following Arabic letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as mentioned against each:

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The following Persian letters have been transliterated with diacritical marks as expressed against each:

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  • ء/أ-has been transliterated with elevated coma (’) if used in the mid or end of the word followed by a relevant vowel and this elevated coma is not expressed at the beginning and only related vowel has been used directly.

  • Letter ع is transliterated as elevated inverted comma (‘).

  • Letter و as an Arabic letter is transliterated as w and as Persian/Urdu letter is transliterated

    as v.

  • ة and ہ are not expressed in both pauses and construct forms.

  • Article ال is transliterated as al- (’l- in construct form) whether followed by a moon or a sun letter.

  • و as a Persian/Urdu conjunction is transliterated as ( o ) and as Arabic conjunction is transliterated as wa-.

  • Short vowel (ِ۔ ِ) in Persian/Urdu passive or in conjunction form is transliterated as (-i).

  • Double letters have been expressed as follows:

  • uww= ّو

  • iyy = ّی

  • Short & long vowels and Diphthongs are used in the following form:

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